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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparison of fractal dimension values of peri-implant bone and healthy contralateral side using panoramic radiographs
Betül Ilhan, Pelin Güneri, Ahmet Saraçoglu, Hüseyin Koca, Hayal Boyacioglu
January-April 2015, 3(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.151636  
Context: Trabecular bone around dental implants has been rarely evaluated by means of fractal analysis. Aims: The aim was to assess fractal dimension (FD) values of peri-implant bone 12 months after implant installation and to compare these FD values with those of healthy control sites on the contralateral side of the implant area. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs from 29 patients with 29 mandibular implants functioning for 12 months were analyzed. Radiographs were digitized at 300 dpi with 256 grey levels. Healthy trabecular bone from the corresponding contralateral implant-free area was referred as "control site." Three region of interests (ROIs) from mesial, distal and apical areas were selected for each implant and each control site. The FD from peri-implant and control ROIs were calculated by means of box-counting method. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure on one factor. The independent variable included a between-subjects variable, the site and within-subject variable, repeated measures of ROI. An alpha level of 0.05 was utilized. Results: Mean FD for apical, mesial and distal peri-implant areas were 1.220, 1.222 and 1.226 respectively while the corresponding results were 1.198, 1.183 and 1.202 for control sites. There was not a significant main effect between the FD values of implant and control sides (P = 0.332). Similarly, result of the main effect of ROI (apical, mesial, distal) on FD values was not statistically significant (P = 0.632). Conclusions: Fractal dimension values from trabecular bone around implants as calculated from panoramic radiographs at 12 months revealed comparable results with implant-free healthy alveolar bone.
  5 3,060 470
A comparison of cone-beam computed tomography image quality obtained in phantoms with different fields of view, voxel size, and angular rotation for iCAT NG
Dorothy A Sonya, Jonathan Davies, Nancy Lee Ford
May-August 2016, 4(2):31-39
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.183821  
Objectives: To characterize cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image quality (IQ) and dose for different fields of view (FOVs), voxel size, and angular rotation. Materials and Methods: IQ parameters, including image noise, homogeneity, geometric distortion, artifacts, contrast resolution and spatial resolution, and radiation dose, were measured for different FOV, voxel size, and angular rotation for an iCAT NG CBCT machine. Results: Noise increased with smaller voxel sizes as measured in the homogeneity layers. The 360° gantry rotation leads to improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution and a decrease in artifacts compare to 180° gantry rotation with the same voxel size and FOV. Dose reduction was not always observed with smaller FOVs if smaller voxel sizes and longer scan times are used. Some of the test objects included in the phantom are not useful for dental CBCT machines, such as the range of resolutions tested by the bar pattern insert and the suitability of the materials used for the contrast assessment layer. Conclusions: A reduction in the patient dose can be achieved by reducing the angular rotation to 180°, increasing the acquired voxel size or decreasing the FOV height. However, using the reduced rotation angle also leads to increased artifacts around metallic objects. Changing the voxel size did not necessarily lead to improved spatial resolution or reduced dose, as some of the voxel sizes on this machine have identical imaging parameters.
  5 4,288 480
CASE REPORTS
Aggressive central giant cell granuloma of the mandible, a diagnostic dilemma
Pavitra Baskaran, Margathavalli Gopal, Varun Rastogi, Satya Ranjan Misra
September-December 2015, 3(3):88-91
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.170614  
Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaw bones is a rare benign intraosseous lesions that is commonly seen as indolent lesions in the mandible anterior to the first molar. It is a localized osteolytic lesion with the varied biologic behavior of aggression which affects the jaw bones. There is much controversy regarding it arising as a result of trauma and its connection with the giant cell lesion seen in the long bones. Since the lesion is uncommon, does not possess any characteristic clinical or radiologic features, and resembles neoplasms, the diagnosis is initially some odontogenic or non-odontogenic neoplasm till a definitive histologic diagnosis of CGCG is made. CGCG is divided into a rare aggressive variant and a common nonaggressive variant based on the clinical and radiographic features. The present case is a rare aggressive CGCG seen in the posterior mandible associated with mandibular swelling, rapid growth, pain, paraesthesia, and cortical bone perforation.
  3 11,348 1,046
Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible: Report of a case with a review of the literature
Hasan Onur Simsek, Derya Yildirim, Ozlem Gormez, Esra Yuce, Fatma Nilgun Kapucuoglu
May-August 2014, 2(2):64-67
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.138653  
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), is a rare benign osteolytic bone neoplasm of bone tissue characterized by several sponge-like blood or serum filled, generally non-endothelialized spaces of various diameters that can contain osteoid tissue and osteoclast-like giant cells. In this article, we describe a case of ABC in the mandibular corpus region with clinical, radiological and pathological findings and review the literature concerning the case. A 23-year-old male patient attended to our clinic with the complaint of a mild-pain on the left posterior lower jaw since two months. The superior margin of the lesion was extending between the apical third parts of the roots of the teeth 35-38. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed. CBCT Slices revealed an expansile lesion with hydraulic-appearing outer margins above the mandibular canal. Excisional surgical treatment was performed after raising a mucoperiosteal flap and finalized with curette of lesion under local anesthesia. Diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst was confirmed by histopathological evaluation. The patient was pain free after six months follow-up, and panoramic radiography showed no evidence of recurrence. The ABC is most common in those regions of the skeleton where there is a relatively high venous pressure and high marrow content. Clinical presentation of the ABC varies from a small, indolent, asymptomatic lesion to rapidly growing, expansile, destructive lesion causing pain, swelling, deformity, neurologic symptoms, pathologic fracture, and perforation of the cortex. As the radiologic and clinical presentation of ABC is extremely variable, histopathologic examination is placed a great emphasis on for the diagnosis.
  3 7,823 624
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Buccal-lingual localization of the mandibular canal in relationship with the third molar using the lateral oblique technique
Gainer Raul Jasa, Mariana Boessio Vizzotto, Priscila Fernanda da Silveira, Heloisa Emilia Dias da Silveira, Heraldo Luis Dias da Silveira, Leticia Ruhland Correa, Tabare Raveca
January-April 2014, 2(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133557  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lateral oblique radiography (LOR) at two different incidence angles for the bucco-lingual topographic localization of the mandibular canal with respect to the lower third molars. Materials And Method: A total of 24 dry jaws bearing at least one third molar were subject to LOR at vertical incidence angles of 0° and -30°. A trained and calibrated examiner measured the distance between the top of the mandibular canal to the most apical point of the third molar, using a digital calliper and individual light box for the radiographs. Based on the analysis of the two measurements (incidence angles of 0° and -30°) and considering the buccal object rule, the observer estimated the location of the mandibular canal, which was classified as lingual, central or buccal to the corresponding third molar. Results were compared with the computerized tomography images (gold standard). Results: The statistical analysis included sensitivity, specificity and accuracy tests. These results showed that LOR (0° e -30°) could be used to determine the bucco-lingual location of the mandibular canal with respect to the third molar. Conclusion: In spite of the magnification, LOR images demonstrated that the technique could be used for this study proposal.
  3 7,886 786
Comparison of radiopacities of different flowable resin composites
Derya Yildirim, Rabia Banu Ermis, Ozlem Gormez, Gul Yildiz
January-April 2014, 2(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133562  
Objectives: Radiopacity can facilitate diagnostic observations adjacent to flowable resin composites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of the current low viscosity flowable resin composites and to compare them with human dental tissues. Materials and Methods: Five specimens of seven flowable light cured composite materials with a thickness of 2 mm were prepared and radiographed alongside an aluminum stepwedge, human enamel and dentin. Three standart occlusal radiographs for each material were taken with exposure time of 0.32 seconds and focus-film distance of 40 cm. Films were processed in an automatic device, and digitized using a desktop scanner. Mean gray values of the materials, stepwedge, enamel and dentine were measured using Image J software. The data were analyzed using the Duncan multiple range test. Results: The mean gray values of flowable resin composites ranged from 26.61 ± 1.45 to 38.38 ± 1.47. The radiopacity values of the materials evaluated were in decreasing order: G-aenial Flo, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, Flowline, Estelite Flow Quick, Leaddent Flow, Supraflow, Bright Light Flow. All flowable resin composites, except Bright Light Flow, demonstrated significantly greater radiopacity values than 2 mm of the aluminum scale and dentin (P < 0.05). The radiopacity of only one flowable composite, G-aenial Flo, was found to be significantly higher from enamel (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All investigated materials presented radiopacity values above the minimum recommended by the international organization for standardization.
  3 4,172 397
REVIEW ARTICLES
Latest advancements in imaging of oral and maxillofacial neoplasm: A comprehensive review
Devvrat Singh, Sukant Sahoo, Vineet Gupta, Deepti Srivastava
May-August 2013, 1(2):37-42
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120094  
Radiographic imaging is one of the greatest investigative tools that are used in medical sciences since ages. There is an important role of imaging in staging, during treatment planning, and post-treatment follow up of patients with head and neck cancer. To design an effective treatment strategy, two tasks are very important which are accurate staging and timely assessment of the cancer. There lies the importance of pre-treatment imaging in diagnosis. Awareness of the presence of cervical node metastasis is important in treatment planning and in prognostic prediction for patients with head and neck cancer. Currently, MRI and CT are commonly used to evaluate the primary tumor and the neck status. They characterize the cervical lymph nodes dependent on morphological criteria. Doppler ultrasound and Positron emission tomography are also used to overcome some of the limitations of MRI and CT.
  3 5,847 1,027
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Quick response code in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
Moidin Shakil, Durbakula Karteek, Kulkarni Spoorti, Maji Jose
September-December 2014, 2(3):95-96
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.144696  
Quick response (QR) codes are two-dimensional barcodes that are used to encode and decode information. QR code is an innovative approach in which patient details and radiographic interpretation can be encoded. These QR codes can be shared efficiently worldwide with easy authentication. QR code is a boost to early diagnosis and retrospective studies. Implementing QR code in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology will save time, eliminate paper work, and problems encountered in storage of patient details with radiographic interpretation and minimize manual efforts in retrieval of information.
  3 2,543 198
CASE REPORTS
Investigation and differential diagnosis of Stafne bone cavities with cone beam computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: Report of two cases
Elif Tarim Ertas, Meral Yircali Atici, Fahrettin Kalabalik, Ozlem Ince
September-December 2015, 3(3):92-96
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.170617  
Stafne bone cavity (SBC), commonly known as Stafne bone cyst or defect is mostly asymptomatic, appearing as a unilateral, round or ovoid, radiolucent defect with thick and corticated border. Defects that are referred as pseudocysts generally occur in mandibular molar region, below the mandibular canal at the lingual side of the mandible and may grow slowly in time. They have been also located lingually in the anterior mandible above the mylohyoid muscle, and on the ascending ramus just inferior to mandibular condyle or very rarely buccal region of the ascending ramus. The aim of this case report is to present two unusual cases of SBC detected incidentally during radiographic examination with cone beam computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. In the first case, significant enlargement caused vestibular resorption of the buccal cortex, which is a rare finding with SBCs and in the second case the large bone resorption reached up to the mental foramen.
  2 9,551 759
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical applications of ultrasonography in diagnosing head and neck swellings
Jigna S Shah, Vijay K Asrani
January-April 2017, 5(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/jomr.jomr_4_17  
Background: Ultrasonography is well-known for its application in medicine, and has been recently gaining importance for its use in the orofacial region. Aims and Objective: The present study aims to determine the efficacy of ultrasonography in diagnosing soft tissue swellings of the head and neck. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with the head and neck soft tissue swelling were included in the study and all were subjected to ultrasonography. Various findings were recorded such as shape, boundary, echo-intensity, ultrasound architecture, presence of necrosis, posterior echoes, ultrasound characteristic of lesion, and vascularity, and an ultrasonography diagnosis was made. After obtaining final diagnosis sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the test was calculated in various types of swelling. Results: In case of an inflammatory swelling, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 89.5%, PPV of 84.6%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 93.3%. In cystic swellings, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, NPV of 95.8%, and accuracy of 96.67%. In nonodontogenic benign tumor, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 100%. In malignant swellings, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, NPV of 96.2%, and accuracy of 96.67%. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that ultrasonography is highly accurate in diagnosing benign neoplasms, followed by soft tissue cystic swellings and malignant neoplasms, followed by inflammatory swellings of the head and neck region.
  2 3,670 481
The prevalence, anatomic locations and characteristics of the odontomas using panoramic radiographs
Hakan Avsever, Hakan Kurt, Tolga Berkay Suer, Hilal Peker Ozturk, Bulent Piskin
May-August 2015, 3(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.157523  
Objectives: Odontomas are the most common variety of odontogenic tumors and derived from differentiated epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, types and localization of the odontomas in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of panoramic images that were taken between April 2011 and January 2014 in the Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GATA), Turkey. A total of 14,250 panoramic images were evaluated by an experienced dentomaxillofacial radiology specialist. The clinicopathologic features of odontomas such as, anatomic location, distribution in gender, age of the patients and the incidence of the odontomas were assessed. Results: A total of 22 odontomas in 20 patients (11 females; 9 males) (0.14%) were found of the 14,250 patients` panoramic view. About 36.4% of the lesions were complex odontomas and 63.6% were diagnosed as compound odontomas. About 18.2% of all cases were in the maxilla and 81.8% in the mandible. The anterior portion of mandible was found the most common location (40.9%) in this study. Conclusions: According to the result of this study, the compound types of the odontomas are more common than complex odontomas and the anterior mandible is the most affected site. It was noted that even though odontomas are the most common variety of odontogenic tumors, they rarely occur.
  2 4,485 678
Current status of knowledge, attitude, and perspective of dental practitioners toward cone beam computed tomography: A survey
Amita Aditya, Shailesh Lele, Priyam Aditya
May-August 2015, 3(2):54-57
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.157524  
Context of the Study: In India, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has lately gained popularity as preferred imaging modality by the dental practitioners in recent times. However, CBCT is included neither in the undergraduate nor the Postgraduate dental curriculum. There is also a lack of any standardized training modules on CBCT. Many CBCT imaging centers are being established in various cities of India lately; however optimal use of this technique cannot be assured without assessing the attitude and present status of knowledge of the dental practitioners in this field. This shall warranty some remedial steps; in case a gap in knowledge is identified. Hence, this study was designed to analyze the current status of the knowledge, attitude and perspective of the dental practitioners in Pune, Maharashtra toward the use of CBCT. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among dental specialists, using a structured questionnaire. This was complemented with the opinion of the experts in the field of Oral Radiology. Results: The study results indicate that there is a definite gap in knowledge of CBCT applications among the dental specialists. The dental specialists themselves feel that there is a lack of awareness as well as training in this field, and strongly perceive a need for the same. Even the experts in the field of oral radiology strongly agree educational strategies must be developed for training in CBCT. Introduction of training in CBCT at undergraduate as well as Postgraduate level, and developing well-structured training modules shall ensure that dental specialists use this technique in an efficient way to improve the accuracy and reliability of Oral and Maxillo-facial diagnosis, treatment planning and outcomes.
  2 3,162 476
Cephalometric evaluation of upper airway in healthy adult population: A preliminary study
Kruthika S Guttal, Krishna N Burde
May-August 2013, 1(2):55-60
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120115  
Objective: To obtain normative cephalometric data of upper airway in normal adult population. Materials and Methods: Study included 60 healthy subjects, 30 males and 30 females with age range of 18-40 years with normal skeletal profile, no history of sleep-related disorders, obesity. The cephalometric parameters assessed included airway measurements like size of the tongue, soft palate, dimensions of naso, oro, hypopharynx, and relative positions of hyoid bone and vellaculae. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was used T-value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Significant sex dimorphisms were observed in most of the parameters with the exception of upper airway width and length of soft palate. Conclusions: The data provides preliminary details of upper airway assessment in normal individuals. Further correlations can be drawn with the studies comparing airway dimensions in normal individuals and in subjects with sleep-related disorders.
  2 10,104 1,082
Dentigerous cysts of the jaws: Clinical and radiological findings of 18 cases
Erzurumlu Zerrin, Demirturk Kocasarac Husniye, Celenk Peruze
September-December 2014, 2(3):77-81
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.144673  
Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, clinicopathologic and imaging features of dentigerous cysts (DCs) and to review the literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, between 2010 and 2012, we analyzed 18 DCs of 18 patients (9 female, 9 male) whose ages ranged from 13 to 61. Results: Of the 18 DCs, 33% were found in the maxilla and 67% in the mandible. The most common site for DC was the mandibular molar region, and the most frequently involved tooth was the mandibular third molar. About 67% of the cases were found in the right side and 33% in the left side of the jaws. In the 67% of cases, displacement was observed in the involved tooth and/or adjacent teeth. 44% of the DCs partially surrounded the crown (lateral variety) and 56% surrounded the crown of the tooth (central variety). About 39% of cases had symptoms such as pain, swelling and drainage. 6% of the cases were infected, and resorption in the involved tooth was detected. 6% of the cases, DC caused devitalization of the adjacent tooth. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that DCs occurred most frequently in the posterior region of the mandible and related to third molar tooth. The cysts had a tendency to displace associated and/or adjacent teeth. Panoramic radiography is important in finding out these cysts. Computed tomography is recommended for differential diagnosis, expansion and association with neighboring anatomical structures.
  2 9,323 1,025
CASE REPORTS
Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia
Mustafa Gumusok, Meryem Toraman Alkurt, Kaan Hamurcu, Dervis Kaan Kilavuz, Emre Baris, Baris Simsek
September-December 2014, 2(3):92-94
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.144683  
Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibro-osseous lesion which changes cancellous bone tissue with each fibrous tissue and cementum-like material, or both together. The teeth that are related to the lesion are vital, and FCOD is generally asymptomatic. FCOD is, usually, found during routine radiographic examination. The etiology and pathogenesis of FCOD are unknown. This lesion is evaluated to be a reactive or a dysplastic process in the periapical tissues. Radiologic images of FCOD change depending on the amount of mineralization. Radiological appearance of FCOD is either only complete radiolocent or only complete radio-opaque or mixed radiolucent, radio-opaque together. In this case report an FCOD is presented, which is located between the first premolar and the second molar on the left side mandible of a 60-year-old female patient. The lesion caused perforation and expansion of alveolar bone. The diagnosis, treatment and 1 year follow-up after surgery are reported.
  1 6,171 441
Isolated masseter cysticercosis in a healthy woman
Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Santosh Kumar Subudhi, Adyakinkar Panda, Harshmohan Pathak, Swagatika Panda
January-April 2015, 3(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.151642  
We report a rare case of unilateral masseter muscle swelling in a 44-year-old female patient who was provisionally diagnosed as cysticercosis of master muscle on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Intraoral excision of the cyst and histopathological examination confirm the mass as masseter cysticercosis.
  1 3,290 267
An unusual case of large, destructive stafne bone cavity with computed tomography findings
Mahmut Sumer, Aydan Acikgoz, Canan Uzun, Omer Gunhan
January-April 2015, 3(1):28-30
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.151647  
Stafne bone cavity (SBC) is an asymptomatic lingual bone depression that usually described as a small oval homogenous radiolucency in the posterior mandibular region. The radiographic appearance and location of the SBC are characteristic and easily identified. The diagnosis can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or sialography. This report describes a case of SBC in a 61-year-old male asymptomatic patient, presenting as a radiolucency in the left mandibular body with loss of buccal and lingual cortical plates on three-dimensional CT scan.
  1 2,465 308
Stafne bone cavity incidentally ''Twice'' diagnosed on panoramic radiographs
Ulkem Aydin, Yener Oguz
January-April 2014, 2(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133564  
A 63-year-old male patient admitted to another hospital for prosthetic restoration. On the panoramic radiograph a lesion was detected on the right mandible and he was referred for a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination. The patient then admitted to our clinic for the diagnosis of this lesion. Review of the dental records revealed that a panoramic radiograph and a maxillofacial computed tomography scan were made about 10 years ago, and a Stafne bone cavity (SBC) was diagnosed. Moreover, a follow-up panoramic radiograph was made about 5 years ago. Despite the explanation given, the patient requested the CBCT examination in a private imaging center. The imaging features of the lesion were the same. In order to protect the patients from unnecessary radiation, the clinicians should make every effort to prevent duplicate imaging, and X-ray based advanced imaging techniques should be reserved for selected cases.
  1 3,091 298
Peripheral osteoma of the mandible with radiologic and histopathologic findings
Asli Tanrivermis Sayit, Gokhan Kutlar, Ilkay Sedakat Idilman, Pinar Hediye Gunbey, Asuman Celik
January-April 2014, 2(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133570  
Osteomas are benign, slow growing osteogenic tumors. They are often occurring in the craniofacial bones but rarely originates from the mandible. Osteomas have three varieties as central, peripheral and extraskeletal. Central and peripheral osteomas are often seen in the facial bones. Peripheral osteoma often located in the frontal, ethmoid and maxillary sinus, but rarely occurs in the jaws. Usually they are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during radiological and clinical examinations. Osteomas are characterized with well-defined, rounded or oval radiopaque mass in the computed tomography. Herein, we report a rare case of peripheral osteoma of the lower part of the mandible in a 19-year-old female with radiologic and pathologic findings.
  1 5,661 446
EDITORIAL
The importance of reporting in oral and maxillofacial radiology
Özlem Üçok
May-August 2015, 3(2):31-32
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.157512  
  1 803 251
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Magnetic resonance imaging observation of bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis
Galal Omami
May-August 2014, 2(2):41-43
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.138631  
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the relationship between bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle and osteoarthritic changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a group of symptomatic patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: MRI data of 96 TMJ dysfunction patients were investigated for association between bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle and TMJ osteoarthritis. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P values less than 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Results: There was statistically significant association between osteoarthritis and bone marrow edema of mandibular condyle. Conclusion: Bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle appears to be a predictor of TMJ osteoarthritis. Further histology-based MRI data are needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of TMJ osteoarthritis.
  1 4,185 399
The evaluation of idiopathic osteosclerosis on panoramic radiographs with an investigation of lesion's relationship with mandibular canal by using cross-sectional cone-beam computed tomography images
Melda Misirlioglu, Rana Nalcaci, Mehmet Zahit Adisen, Selmi Yilmaz
May-August 2013, 1(2):48-54
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120108  
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) in a Turkish population on orthopantomographs with respect to age, sex, and lesion characteristics and investigate the lesion's relationship with mandibular canal with the aid of cross-sectional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods: 8000 panoramic radiographs taken with two digital orthopantomograph devices over a 10-month period were evaluated. Each patient was assigned an identification number, and demographic information (age, sex), absence/presence of a lesion, and if present, lesion characteristics (localization, dental relationship, size, and shape) were recorded. Additionally, cross-sectional CBCT images of 30 patients with IO were examined in terms of relationship with mandibular canal. Results: 273 IO lesions were detected in 225 patients (130 females, 95 males; mean age: 33.1 years). The majority of lesions were observed in the mandibular premolar and molar areas. IO lesions occurred more frequently among middle-aged individuals and at higher rates among females (3.1%, n = 130) than males (2.8%, n = 95); however, differences by age and sex were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Cross-sectional images revealed that 80% of the lesions were in contact with mandibular canal. None of the lesions showed any cortical expansion. Conclusions: This large-scale study found IO to have a low prevalence rate among a Turkish population. IO was observed to occur more frequently in females than in males and to be most common among individuals aged 20-29. CBCT results suggested a possible association between IO lesions and mandibular canal.
  1 18,041 968
Cone-beam computed tomography study of root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in a Turkish sub-population
Gediz Geduk, Yesim Deniz, Ayse Zeynep Zengin, Erol Eroglu
January-April 2015, 3(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.151638  
Aims: The aim was to examine root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in a Turkish sub-population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography images of 382 patients with 1438 healthy permanent mandibular incisors were evaluated. According to Vertucci's classification, teeth were examined to determine the number of roots, the number of canals and canal configurations. The effects of gender and age on the incidence of root-canal morphology were investigated. Results: All of the permanent mandibular incisors had a single root. The majority of mandibular incisors (64.4%) had a single root with a single canal. A second root canal was present more frequently (35.6%) in the mandibular incisors. The prevalence of the two canals system was as follows: Left central incisor 37.9%, right central incisor 38.6%, left lateral incisor 37.4% and right lateral incisor 35.6% (P > 0.05). According to gender, 15.2% of teeth in males and 20.4% in females had a second canal (P > 0.05). Type 1 Vertucci configuration (64.4%) was the most prevalent configuration followed by type 3 (19.4%), type 2 (15.2%), type 5 (0.8%) and type 4 (0.2%). There was no effect of age and gender on the number of roots, number of canals and canal configurations. Conclusion: The prevalence of the second canal in mandibular incisors was high but within the range of previous studies performed on different populations. CBCT imaging is an excellent method for detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors.
  1 3,680 477
Evaluation of diagnostically difficult impacted maxillary canines in orthodontic patients and its effect on the root of adjacent teeth using cone beam computed tomography
Zahra Dalili Kajan, Ali Khalighi Sigaroudi, Navid Karimi Nasab, Zhaleh Shafiee, Somayeh Nemati
January-April 2014, 2(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133544  
Purpose: To evaluate the morphology of apical portion of impacted maxillary canines and their effects on root resorption of adjacent teeth as well as their locations and inclinations with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an individual group of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 71 diagnostically difficult impacted canines of 55 orthodontic patients were studied with CBCT images. In this group, the orthodontic treatment approaches for eruption of their impacted teeth were not successful. A radiologist opined about the angulation, the position of apical and coronal portion of maxillary canine tooth, resorption of adjacent teeth as well as existence of apical hook and root curvature in reconstructed images. The simultaneous existence of hook and root resorption with other data was subjected to statistical analysis by Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests. Results: In this cross-sectional study, the position of crown in buccopalatal dimension were respectively 16.9, 73.2 and 9.9% in buccal, palatal and middle portion of the alveolar bone. Apical hook was seen in 28.2% of cases. Root resorption of the adjacent teeth was induced in 32.3% of the cases, 69.6% of which were slight. Overall, there were no significant statistical differences between the presence of hook, and the positions and angulations of impacted teeth. Conclusions: Apical and palatal positions of crowns of the impacted maxillary canines were the most common locations in the selected groups. The possibility of root resorption of adjacent teeth could be related to angulation of impacted tooth.
  1 4,547 631
REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of computed tomography imaging in dental implantology: An overview
Hemchand Surapaneni, Pallavi Samatha Yalamanchili, Ravi Shankar Yalavarthy, Arunima Padmakumar Reshmarani
May-August 2013, 1(2):43-47
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120105  
Dental implants have become an accepted form of permanent tooth replacement. Advanced imaging studies can be used to determine the suitability of implant placement. Dental computed tomography (CT) has been proved to be an excellent procedure for characterizing the anatomy and dental related abnormalities of the jaws. A number of modalities such as dentascan, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), dental CBCT software, etc., are now available. This makes the diagnostic process more interactive and increases the diagnostic potential. This article reviews the various imaging modalities available for pre-operative implant site assessment, measurement of bone density, use of radio opaque surgical guide and stimulation of implant placement using computerized application of CT.
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* Source: CrossRef
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