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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Buccal-lingual localization of the mandibular canal in relationship with the third molar using the lateral oblique technique
Gainer Raul Jasa, Mariana Boessio Vizzotto, Priscila Fernanda da Silveira, Heloisa Emilia Dias da Silveira, Heraldo Luis Dias da Silveira, Leticia Ruhland Correa, Tabare Raveca
January-April 2014, 2(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133557  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lateral oblique radiography (LOR) at two different incidence angles for the bucco-lingual topographic localization of the mandibular canal with respect to the lower third molars. Materials And Method: A total of 24 dry jaws bearing at least one third molar were subject to LOR at vertical incidence angles of 0° and -30°. A trained and calibrated examiner measured the distance between the top of the mandibular canal to the most apical point of the third molar, using a digital calliper and individual light box for the radiographs. Based on the analysis of the two measurements (incidence angles of 0° and -30°) and considering the buccal object rule, the observer estimated the location of the mandibular canal, which was classified as lingual, central or buccal to the corresponding third molar. Results were compared with the computerized tomography images (gold standard). Results: The statistical analysis included sensitivity, specificity and accuracy tests. These results showed that LOR (0° e -30°) could be used to determine the bucco-lingual location of the mandibular canal with respect to the third molar. Conclusion: In spite of the magnification, LOR images demonstrated that the technique could be used for this study proposal.
  2 3,821 564
REVIEW ARTICLES
Latest advancements in imaging of oral and maxillofacial neoplasm: A comprehensive review
Devvrat Singh, Sukant Sahoo, Vineet Gupta, Deepti Srivastava
May-August 2013, 1(2):37-42
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120094  
Radiographic imaging is one of the greatest investigative tools that are used in medical sciences since ages. There is an important role of imaging in staging, during treatment planning, and post-treatment follow up of patients with head and neck cancer. To design an effective treatment strategy, two tasks are very important which are accurate staging and timely assessment of the cancer. There lies the importance of pre-treatment imaging in diagnosis. Awareness of the presence of cervical node metastasis is important in treatment planning and in prognostic prediction for patients with head and neck cancer. Currently, MRI and CT are commonly used to evaluate the primary tumor and the neck status. They characterize the cervical lymph nodes dependent on morphological criteria. Doppler ultrasound and Positron emission tomography are also used to overcome some of the limitations of MRI and CT.
  2 3,787 708
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Quick response code in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
Moidin Shakil, Durbakula Karteek, Kulkarni Spoorti, Maji Jose
September-December 2014, 2(3):95-96
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.144696  
Quick response (QR) codes are two-dimensional barcodes that are used to encode and decode information. QR code is an innovative approach in which patient details and radiographic interpretation can be encoded. These QR codes can be shared efficiently worldwide with easy authentication. QR code is a boost to early diagnosis and retrospective studies. Implementing QR code in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology will save time, eliminate paper work, and problems encountered in storage of patient details with radiographic interpretation and minimize manual efforts in retrieval of information.
  2 1,343 80
CASE REPORTS
Facial nerve paralysis after dental procedure
Melda Misirlioglu, Mehmet Z Adisen, Alime Okkesim, Yagmur Y Akyil
September-December 2016, 4(3):80-82
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.196356  
Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a common neuropathy of cranial nerves. However, it is a rare condition in dental treatment and may be associated with local anesthetic injections. Initial trauma to facial nerve cab is usually minor. In this instance, a complete and rapid recovery is expected and most cases resolve within 12 hours. If more extensive damage occurs, nerve palsy can be significant and long lasting. We report a 15-year-old female patient with FNP that developed within 8 hours after a dental procedure. The treatment was continued for 10 days with prednisone and acyclovir. At the end of the 4 th day, movement began to return to her face and the symptoms disappeared within 3 weeks period. In dental practice, it should be considered that iatrogenic factors may play a direct or indirect role in FNP, as presented in our case. Clarification of the etiology and treatment of FNP requires a multidisciplinary medical team. Therefore, dentists should be aware of clinical findings along with an essential treatment plan of FNP in dental office.
  1 4,462 125
Extensive cervicofacial and mediastinal subcutaneous emphysema after endodontic retreatment of a maxillary canine: A case report
M Buchbender, S Musazada, S Kreißel, CM Schmitt
January-April 2017, 5(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.202456  
The current case reports of an iatrogenic cervicofacial and mediastinal subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) after endodontic retreatment of a maxillary canine with the usage of a rubber dam. A 79-year-old woman was brought to the hospital with a swelling of the right side of her face and neck. A computed tomography (CT) was performed, and she was directly treated with intravenous antibiotic chemotherapy. Clinical examination and CT revealed a pronounced cervicofacial and mediastinal SCE. After treatment with intravenous antibiotic chemotherapy, the patient showed a decrease of the SCE and was discharged from the hospital. SCEs should be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage to manage an appropriate treatment. In case of misinterpretation of the signs and symptoms or a misdiagnosed SCE, it can become life threatening for patients. Therefore, every clinician should consider preventive measures to avoid such complications.
  1 1,218 89
Craniofacial microsomia: A rare case report
Swapnali Yogesh Chaudhari
May-August 2013, 1(2):70-74
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120122  
Craniofacial microsomia is a unique clinical presentation of "1 st and 2 nd arch syndrome" with asymmetrical craniofacial development along with conductive hearing loss. It involves the underdevelopment of the structures of the first and second pharyngeal arches: Maxilla, mandible, external and middle ear, facial and trigeminal nerves, muscles of mastication and overlying soft tissue. In this article, we report a case of craniofacial microsomia diagnosed based on clinical and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings. CBCT scan revealed incompletely formed inner ear structures in association with craniofacial microsomia, rarely reported in the literature.
  1 2,812 191
Stafne bone cavity incidentally ''Twice'' diagnosed on panoramic radiographs
Ulkem Aydin, Yener Oguz
January-April 2014, 2(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133564  
A 63-year-old male patient admitted to another hospital for prosthetic restoration. On the panoramic radiograph a lesion was detected on the right mandible and he was referred for a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination. The patient then admitted to our clinic for the diagnosis of this lesion. Review of the dental records revealed that a panoramic radiograph and a maxillofacial computed tomography scan were made about 10 years ago, and a Stafne bone cavity (SBC) was diagnosed. Moreover, a follow-up panoramic radiograph was made about 5 years ago. Despite the explanation given, the patient requested the CBCT examination in a private imaging center. The imaging features of the lesion were the same. In order to protect the patients from unnecessary radiation, the clinicians should make every effort to prevent duplicate imaging, and X-ray based advanced imaging techniques should be reserved for selected cases.
  1 1,871 169
Peripheral osteoma of the mandible with radiologic and histopathologic findings
Asli Tanrivermis Sayit, Gokhan Kutlar, Ilkay Sedakat Idilman, Pinar Hediye Gunbey, Asuman Celik
January-April 2014, 2(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133570  
Osteomas are benign, slow growing osteogenic tumors. They are often occurring in the craniofacial bones but rarely originates from the mandible. Osteomas have three varieties as central, peripheral and extraskeletal. Central and peripheral osteomas are often seen in the facial bones. Peripheral osteoma often located in the frontal, ethmoid and maxillary sinus, but rarely occurs in the jaws. Usually they are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during radiological and clinical examinations. Osteomas are characterized with well-defined, rounded or oval radiopaque mass in the computed tomography. Herein, we report a rare case of peripheral osteoma of the lower part of the mandible in a 19-year-old female with radiologic and pathologic findings.
  1 3,179 249
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Compliance of Indian dentists with oral radiology safety measures
Swarna Yerebairapura Math, Devarasa Giriyapura Murugeshappa, Rajeshwari Annigeri, Dheeraj Kalra
September-December 2013, 1(3):104-110
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.126744  
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the dentist's knowledge and practice about dose reduction techniques, radiographic equipment and quality of dental radiographic service among private dental practitioners in Davangere City, India. Materials and Methods: The survey was performed on 80 dental practitioners from Davangere City, India. Information on the demographic characteristics of the dentists, radiographic equipment, techniques and processing they used and radiation protection was obtained with a 40 point questionnaire. Results: The study yielded a response rate of 90%. The respondents' knowledge concerning the technical details of their equipment was limited, with 27.7% not knowing kVp settings of their equipment. Only 11% and 5% respondents reported having long and rectangular collimators respectively. Regarding the film speed 16.6% dental practitioners were unaware about it. The most preferred technique (81%) for periapical radiography was the bisecting angle technique. Lead aprons were worn more often by female dentists. None of the dental practitioners had thyroid collars. The distance of the dentist to the radiation tube during exposure was on average 2.2 m, although 13% of the dentists assisted in holding the image receptor inside the patient's mouth. Only 4% of the dental practitioners reported that they used automatic processor. About 40% of the dental practitioners used film badges. Conclusions: In the present study, the results indicate that for minimizing any unnecessary radiation, attempts should be made to improve dentists' knowledge about radiation dose reduction techniques. Some dose-reducing strategies are commonly used in Davangere Dental clinics, whereas others have not gained wide acceptance.
  1 2,886 470
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Magnetic resonance imaging observation of bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis
Galal Omami
May-August 2014, 2(2):41-43
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.138631  
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the relationship between bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle and osteoarthritic changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a group of symptomatic patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: MRI data of 96 TMJ dysfunction patients were investigated for association between bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle and TMJ osteoarthritis. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P values less than 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Results: There was statistically significant association between osteoarthritis and bone marrow edema of mandibular condyle. Conclusion: Bone marrow edema of the mandibular condyle appears to be a predictor of TMJ osteoarthritis. Further histology-based MRI data are needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of TMJ osteoarthritis.
  1 2,436 262
Evaluation of diagnostically difficult impacted maxillary canines in orthodontic patients and its effect on the root of adjacent teeth using cone beam computed tomography
Zahra Dalili Kajan, Ali Khalighi Sigaroudi, Navid Karimi Nasab, Zhaleh Shafiee, Somayeh Nemati
January-April 2014, 2(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.133544  
Purpose: To evaluate the morphology of apical portion of impacted maxillary canines and their effects on root resorption of adjacent teeth as well as their locations and inclinations with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an individual group of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 71 diagnostically difficult impacted canines of 55 orthodontic patients were studied with CBCT images. In this group, the orthodontic treatment approaches for eruption of their impacted teeth were not successful. A radiologist opined about the angulation, the position of apical and coronal portion of maxillary canine tooth, resorption of adjacent teeth as well as existence of apical hook and root curvature in reconstructed images. The simultaneous existence of hook and root resorption with other data was subjected to statistical analysis by Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests. Results: In this cross-sectional study, the position of crown in buccopalatal dimension were respectively 16.9, 73.2 and 9.9% in buccal, palatal and middle portion of the alveolar bone. Apical hook was seen in 28.2% of cases. Root resorption of the adjacent teeth was induced in 32.3% of the cases, 69.6% of which were slight. Overall, there were no significant statistical differences between the presence of hook, and the positions and angulations of impacted teeth. Conclusions: Apical and palatal positions of crowns of the impacted maxillary canines were the most common locations in the selected groups. The possibility of root resorption of adjacent teeth could be related to angulation of impacted tooth.
  1 2,829 421
Current status of knowledge, attitude, and perspective of dental practitioners toward cone beam computed tomography: A survey
Amita Aditya, Shailesh Lele, Priyam Aditya
May-August 2015, 3(2):54-57
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.157524  
Context of the Study: In India, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has lately gained popularity as preferred imaging modality by the dental practitioners in recent times. However, CBCT is included neither in the undergraduate nor the Postgraduate dental curriculum. There is also a lack of any standardized training modules on CBCT. Many CBCT imaging centers are being established in various cities of India lately; however optimal use of this technique cannot be assured without assessing the attitude and present status of knowledge of the dental practitioners in this field. This shall warranty some remedial steps; in case a gap in knowledge is identified. Hence, this study was designed to analyze the current status of the knowledge, attitude and perspective of the dental practitioners in Pune, Maharashtra toward the use of CBCT. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among dental specialists, using a structured questionnaire. This was complemented with the opinion of the experts in the field of Oral Radiology. Results: The study results indicate that there is a definite gap in knowledge of CBCT applications among the dental specialists. The dental specialists themselves feel that there is a lack of awareness as well as training in this field, and strongly perceive a need for the same. Even the experts in the field of oral radiology strongly agree educational strategies must be developed for training in CBCT. Introduction of training in CBCT at undergraduate as well as Postgraduate level, and developing well-structured training modules shall ensure that dental specialists use this technique in an efficient way to improve the accuracy and reliability of Oral and Maxillo-facial diagnosis, treatment planning and outcomes.
  1 1,715 291
Cephalometric evaluation of upper airway in healthy adult population: A preliminary study
Kruthika S Guttal, Krishna N Burde
May-August 2013, 1(2):55-60
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120115  
Objective: To obtain normative cephalometric data of upper airway in normal adult population. Materials and Methods: Study included 60 healthy subjects, 30 males and 30 females with age range of 18-40 years with normal skeletal profile, no history of sleep-related disorders, obesity. The cephalometric parameters assessed included airway measurements like size of the tongue, soft palate, dimensions of naso, oro, hypopharynx, and relative positions of hyoid bone and vellaculae. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was used T-value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Significant sex dimorphisms were observed in most of the parameters with the exception of upper airway width and length of soft palate. Conclusions: The data provides preliminary details of upper airway assessment in normal individuals. Further correlations can be drawn with the studies comparing airway dimensions in normal individuals and in subjects with sleep-related disorders.
  1 5,654 641
REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of computed tomography imaging in dental implantology: An overview
Hemchand Surapaneni, Pallavi Samatha Yalamanchili, Ravi Shankar Yalavarthy, Arunima Padmakumar Reshmarani
May-August 2013, 1(2):43-47
DOI:10.4103/2321-3841.120105  
Dental implants have become an accepted form of permanent tooth replacement. Advanced imaging studies can be used to determine the suitability of implant placement. Dental computed tomography (CT) has been proved to be an excellent procedure for characterizing the anatomy and dental related abnormalities of the jaws. A number of modalities such as dentascan, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), dental CBCT software, etc., are now available. This makes the diagnostic process more interactive and increases the diagnostic potential. This article reviews the various imaging modalities available for pre-operative implant site assessment, measurement of bone density, use of radio opaque surgical guide and stimulation of implant placement using computerized application of CT.
  1 4,521 715
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