Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 30--33

Characteristics of the patients with temporomandibular joint effusion on magnetic resonance imaging


Ichiro Ogura1, Fumi Mizuhashi2, Yoshihiro Sugawara3, Makoto Oohashi4, Hirokazu Sekiguchi5, Hisato Saegusa3,  
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata, Japan
2 Department of Removable Prosthodontics, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata, Japan
3 Comprehensive Dental Care, The Nippon Dental University Niigata Hospital, Niigata, Japan
4 Dental Anesthesia and General Health Management, The Nippon Dental University Niigata Hospital, Niigata, Japan
5 Laboratory of Dental Technology, The Nippon Dental University Niigata Hospital, Niigata, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Ichiro Ogura
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry, 1-8 Hamaura-Cho, Chuo-Ku, Niigata, Niigata 951-8580
Japan

Abstract

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in the region of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), particularly to examine disc position and configuration, posterior disc attachment, and mandibular marrow status and to assess the presence of TMJ effusion. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion on MRI. Materials and Methods: MR images of 98 TMJs of 49 patients with temporomandibular disorders were evaluated in this study. The patients with TMJ effusion were concerning age, gender, TMJ pain, disc displacement with or without reduction, and osteoarthrosis. Results: The incidence of the patients with TMJ effusion was significantly different between male (19.2%) and female (51.4%, P = 0.005) and between TMJ pain present (53.7%) and absent (29.5%, P = 0.024), respectively. Logistic multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that gender (odds ratio = 4.188, P = 0.012) and TMJ pain (odds ratio = 2.704, P = 0.027) were significant in patients with TMJ effusion. Conclusions: This study suggests that characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion include female and TMJ pain.



How to cite this article:
Ogura I, Mizuhashi F, Sugawara Y, Oohashi M, Sekiguchi H, Saegusa H. Characteristics of the patients with temporomandibular joint effusion on magnetic resonance imaging.J Oral Maxillofac Radiol 2019;7:30-33


How to cite this URL:
Ogura I, Mizuhashi F, Sugawara Y, Oohashi M, Sekiguchi H, Saegusa H. Characteristics of the patients with temporomandibular joint effusion on magnetic resonance imaging. J Oral Maxillofac Radiol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 15 ];7:30-33
Available from: http://www.joomr.org/text.asp?2019/7/2/30/268239


Full Text



 Introduction



Many studies had been carried out to evaluate the morphological differences in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to develop diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs).[1] TMDs represent a major cause of nondental pain in the orofacial region and are considered to be a subclass of musculoskeletal disorders.[2] Internal derangement of TMJ is the most common cause of TMD. It describes an abnormal position of the articular disc.[3]

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an advanced imaging technique that provides excellent contrast in soft tissues without radiation or surgical invasion. MRI is widely used in the region of TMJ, particularly to examine disc position and configuration, posterior disc attachment, and mandibular marrow status and to assess the presence of TMJ effusion.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11]

Furthermore, TMJ effusion, which typically appears as a bright signal on T2-weighted MR images,[4] has been recognized as a possible sign related to pain in patients with TMD.[6],[8],[12],[13],[14] However, some authors question the relationship.[15],[16],[17],[18] Other factors correlated with either TMJ effusion or pain could influence the relationship. The status of the disc in the TMJ could be one of the factors as it has been correlated with TMJ effusion as well as with pain.[8]

However, to the best of our knowledge, the characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion on MRI have not been reported in the literature. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion on MRI.

 Materials and Methods



Patients

This study was approved by the ethics committee of our institution. After providing written informed consent, 49 patients (13 males and 36 females; age 14–85 years, mean age 46.3 years) with TMDs underwent MRI at our university hospital from October 2018 to March 2019.

Magnetic resonance imaging techniques

The MR images (1.5 Tesla MR unit; EXCELART Vantage MRT-2003; Canon Medical Systems, Otawara, Japan) with a surface coil for the TMJ included proton density-weighted sagittal and coronal imaging at the closed mouth position and the maximum mouth opening position (repetition time [TR]/echo time [TE] 2000 ms/18 ms, field of view [FOV] 130 mm × 130 mm, matrix size 256 × 224, and 1 acquisition) and T2-weighted sagittal and coronal imaging at the closed mouth position and the maximum mouth opening position (TR/TE 3500 ms/100 ms, FOV 130 mm × 130 mm, matrix size 256 × 192, and 2 acquisitions).

Data analysis

All MR images of 98 TMJs of 49 patients with TMD, such as disc displacement with or without reduction, TMJ effusion, and osteoarthrosis, were independently evaluated by two oral radiologists, and any differences were resolved by forced consensus using criteria of the image findings.[10],[12] The patients with TMJ effusion were concerning age, gender, TMJ pain, disc displacement with or without reduction, and osteoarthrosis.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analyses for characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion were performed using the Chi-square test with Fisher's exact test. The odds ratios for the characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion were analyzed using logistic multivariate regression analysis. These analyses were performed with the statistical package IBM SPSS statistics version 24 (IBM Japan, Tokyo, Japan). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

 Results



The characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion on MRI are shown in [Table 1]. The incidence of the patients with TMJ effusion was significantly different between male (19.2%) and female (51.4%, P = 0.005) and between TMJ pain present (53.7%) and absent (29.5%, P = 0.024), respectively. Furthermore, logistic multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that gender (odds ratio = 4.188, P = 0.012) and TMJ pain (odds ratio = 2.704, P = 0.027) were significant in patients with TMJ effusion [Table 2]. [Figure 1] indicates a patient with TMJ pain, effusion, and disc displacement without reduction on MRI.{Table 1}{Table 2}{Figure 1}

 Discussion



The authors found that characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion include female and TMJ pain. Some authors have compared TMJ effusion, the MR finding of a hyperintense signal inside the joint space, in painful and nonpainful TMJs and found a significant association between TMJ pain and increased signal intensity.[7],[18],[19] However, other authors have disclosed that the TMJ effusion did not directly relate to the presence of TMJ pain.[15],[20] Further, Adame et al.[16] failed to relate TMJ pain and TMJ effusion; they depicted TMJ effusion as being related to the MR findings of internal derangement and osteoarthrosis. In this study, we showed that the incidence of the patients with TMJ effusion was not significantly different between disc displacement with reduction (39.3%) and without reduction (48.6%, P = 0.405) and between osteoarthrosis present (42.9%) and absent (42.9%, P = 1.000), respectively.

Regarding logistic multivariate regression analysis in TMJ pain, Emshoff et al.[21] showed that significant increases in risk of TMJ pain occurred with disc displacement without reduction in combination with osteoarthrosis and bone marrow edema (3.7:1 odds ratio) and with disc displacement without reduction in combination with osteoarthrosis and effusion (2.8:1 odds ratio). Ogura[12] indicated a significant relationship between TMJ pain during maximum jaw opening and disc displacement without reduction (odds ratio = 2.36), TMJ effusion (odds ratio = 2.24), gender (odds ratio = 1.58), and osteoarthrosis (odds ratio = 1.40). In this study, logistic multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that gender (odds ratio = 4.188, P = 0.012) and TMJ pain (odds ratio = 2.704, P = 0.027) were significant in patients with TMJ effusion. Therefore, we consider that characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion include female and TMJ pain.

There were several limitations of this study. The sample was relatively small. Therefore, further research is necessary to validate these results.

 Conclusions



We investigated the characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion on MRI. The results suggest that characteristics of the patients with TMJ effusion include female and TMJ pain.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI, Grant Number JP 18K09754.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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