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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-22

Online since Thursday, July 2, 2020

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Computer-assisted measurement of radiographical alveolar bone density using intraoral radiographs: Preliminary study on comparison between men and women in young adults p. 1
Makoto Oohashi, Fumi Mizuhashi, Yoshihiro Sugawara, Hisato Saegusa, Akitoshi Katsumata, Ichiro Ogura
Background: As bone mineral is one of the major determinants of bone strength, its exact measurement should be useful for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, as well as for the prediction of fracture risk and monitoring of therapeutically response. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate computer-assisted measurement of radiographical alveolar bone density using intraoral radiographs, especially comparison between men and women in young adults. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients in young adults (20 men and 22 women; age 22–25 years; and mean age 23.2 years) of the mandibular premolar region who underwent intraoral radiographs with imaging plate (IP) detector and computer analysis system “DentalSCOPE” were included in this study. The DentalSCOPE had a special X-ray beam indicator in which a special calcium carbonate reference object was embedded. IP-based digital X-ray images were input into the DentalSCOPE system. The DentalSCOPE software measured the image density of the reference object automatically and calculated the mineral density value of an arbitrary region of interest (ROI). The mineral density of a rectangular ROI in the periapical region of mandibular premolars was evaluated. The age and alveolar bone density were compared between men and women using the Mann–Whitney U-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no difference in age between men (23.1 ± 0.9 years) and women (23.2 ± 0.9 years) in this study. The alveolar bone density of the mandibular premolar region in men (0.98 ± 0.08 g/cm2) was significantly higher than that in women (0.88 ± 0.14 g/cm2, P = 0.006). Conclusions: This study suggested that DentalSCOPE may be useful for evaluating the mineral density of alveolar bone.
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New device for dental radiographic standardization p. 5
Jorge Abrao, Jefferson Xavier de Oliveira, André Felipe Abrão, Giselle Guimarães do Carmo, Kátia Rie Yabiku Utsunomiya, Rachelle Elisa Arantes Gobo, Rafael Golghetto Domingos
Context: The device for dental radiographic standardization (DDRS) was developed to minimize the distortions in conventional periapical radiographs or digital subtraction, improving the effectiveness of the technique. Objectives: The objective of this study is to present the DDRS and prove its effectiveness through comparative test, performed with the techniques of Bissetrix and Parallelism. Configurations and Design: The DDRS adapts to the universal radiographic positioner, is economical, and easy to operate. It is recommended for the use in research, where standardization is a requirement. Subjects and Methods: DDRS is produced using the additive manufacturing method for prototyping, after creating a three-dimensional (3D) model using a specific program (Autodesk Inventor 2016, Autodesk, Inc, California, USA). The final prototype was converted to the STL format, which was later read by a 3D printer (3D Machine ONE, São Paulo, Brazil). To perform the tests, three radiographic techniques were compared, Bisecting angle technique, parallelism and DDRS fitted to the universal positioner, and two examiners performed the evaluation independently. Statistical Analysis Used: Differences between the techniques were compared by the analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparisons. The variability of the measured values among the techniques was compared by the Levene’s test. The intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the reproducibility and interexaminer agreement for each technique and parameter. Results: DDRS eliminates the effect of distortion factors that normally affect conventional methods, allowing greater reliability in the interpretation of the image before, during, and after treatment. Conclusions: The DDRS should be used for clinical and routine research purposes, facilitating comparisons of the same image at different time intervals, with minimized errors of vertical and horizontal angulation. This allows greater reliability in the interpretation of the image in relation to the structures of interest.
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Prevalence of lingual foramina in the anterior mandible: A cone-beam computed tomography study p. 10
Julia Bellinazzi de Andrade Santos, Fabiano Capato de Brito, Eduardo Cláudio Lopes de Chaves e Mello Dias
Context: Serious hemorrhagic complications can result from arterial trauma associated with perforation of the lingual cortical plate or injury to the terminal branches of the sublingual and submental arteries that pierce the lingual cortex of the mandible in the anterior region. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of lingual foramina (LF) in the anterior mandible by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to determine the presence and number of foramina, lingual foramina canal length (LFC), distance from the base of the mandible to the entrance of the LFC, distance from the base of the mandible to the end of the LFC, distance from the end of the LFC to the buccal cortical plate, and diameter of the LFC, and to attempt to find a relation between the data obtained to age, sex, and dental condition. Settings and Design: This study design involves a retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 303 CBCT images were evaluated of the anterior mandible with software and recorded the measurements into a spreadsheet, which was converted into graphs and tables. The CBCTs were assessed based on sex, age, and dental condition. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher’s exact test and Student’s t-test. Results: We found a prevalence rate of 99.3%. The foramina were evident in 102 (99.0%) men and 199 (99.5%) women. The most prevalent number of canals was two (47.5%). The superior canal presented as greater length (7.25 ± 2.04 mm) and diameter (0.95 ± 0.58 mm). Conclusion: The prevalence of LF is high, and their presence is not related to sex, age, or dental condition.
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Imaging of osteochondroma of the temporomandibular joint – Report of two cases p. 16
Ruchi Gupta, Sailesh Kumar Mukul, Abhishek Singh, Subhash Kumar
Osteochondroma of mandibular condyle is an uncommon entity. In the temporomandibular region, they usually present as restriction in mouth opening and pain in the joint. They can grow to a large size to impinge upon the cranial fossa. We present the imaging features of two such rare cases, one was giant condylar osteochondroma and the other one was condylar osteochondroma associated with contralateral osteochondroma of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and congenital block cervical vertebrae. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joint and bone scan findings are discussed in detail along with the follow-up of patients.
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Bilateral second branchial cleft anomaly: Diagnosed on computed tomographic fistulography p. 21
Madhurima Sharma, Dinesh Sood, Indrajeet Singh Chauhan, Deepika Thakur, Munish Dev
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