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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 55-59

Effect of root length over alveolar bone on fracture resistance: Detection by cone-beam computed tomography


1 Department of Removable Prosthodontics, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata, Japan
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata, Japan
3 Comprehensive Dental Care, The Nippon Dental University Niigata Hospital, Niigata, Japan
4 Dental Anesthesia and General Health Management, The Nippon Dental University Niigata Hospital, Niigata, Japan
5 Laboratory of Dental Technology, The Nippon Dental University Niigata Hospital, Niigata, Japan

Date of Submission24-Oct-2019
Date of Decision27-Dec-2019
Date of Acceptance03-Jan-2020
Date of Web Publication14-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
Fumi Mizuhashi
Department of Removable Prosthodontics, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, 1-8 Hamaura-Cho, Chuo-Ku, Niigata, 951-8580
Japan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jomr.jomr_25_19

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  Abstract 


Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of root length over alveolar bone to the occurrence of root fracture using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: We reviewed the CBCT images of 176 endodontically treated upper incisors (7 with root fracture and 169 without root fracture) from April 2018 to March 2019. Measurement of the mesial and distal root length over and under the alveolar bone was performed by cross-sectional multiplanar reformation (MPR) image that passing the middle of the distance from the labial side to the palatal side of the tooth, and measurement of the labial and palatal root length over and under the alveolar bone was performed by parasagittal MPR image that passing the middle of the distance from the mesial side to the distal side of the tooth using CBCT. The minimum and average values among the labial, palatal, mesial, and distal root length over and under the alveolar bone were evaluated. The minimum and average values of the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The minimum and average values of root length over the alveolar bone were statistically significantly different between the tooth with and without root fracture (P < 0.01). The minimum value of the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone was statistically significantly different between the tooth with and without root fracture (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggested that the root length over the alveolar bone was smaller in the tooth with root fracture.

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, remaining root tissue, root fracture


How to cite this article:
Mizuhashi F, Ogura I, Sugawara Y, Oohashi M, Sekiguchi H, Saegusa H. Effect of root length over alveolar bone on fracture resistance: Detection by cone-beam computed tomography. J Oral Maxillofac Radiol 2019;7:55-9

How to cite this URL:
Mizuhashi F, Ogura I, Sugawara Y, Oohashi M, Sekiguchi H, Saegusa H. Effect of root length over alveolar bone on fracture resistance: Detection by cone-beam computed tomography. J Oral Maxillofac Radiol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 28];7:55-9. Available from: http://www.joomr.org/text.asp?2019/7/3/55/278417




  Introduction Top


The number of dental patients with caries or periodontal disease has been decreased by the development of preventive dentistry, and the cause of tooth loss has also been changed. The incidence of tooth loss caused by root fractures is increasing, whereas that of caries or periodontal disease is decreasing.[1] It is desirable to prevent root fractures for avoiding tooth loss.

Remaining root tissue is necessary for increasing the fracture resistance. Ng et al.[2] indicated that the fracture susceptibility of teeth restored with posts may be related to the amount of the remaining tooth structure, which provides resistance to the fracture of the tooth. The minimum thickness of root dentine required around a post is uncertain, and values from 1.0 to 1.75 mm are often suggested.[3] Juloski et al.[4] showed that the presence of a ferrule increases the fracture resistance. Biologic width is the width including the connective tissue attachment and the junctional epithelium, and the mean dimension is approximately 2 mm.[5] In cases where caries reaches the subgingival part, the margin of the crown tends to set at deep part under the gingival margin, and then the biologic width is infringed. When the biologic width is infringed, the amount of the residual dentine becomes smaller and there is a susceptibility to cause root fracture.[6] Furthermore, it is difficult to give ferrule which can prevent vertical and horizontal root fractures [7],[8] on teeth with infringed biologic width. Therefore, when the distance between the margins of the crown and the top of the alveolar bone was <2 mm, crown lengthening or orthodontic extrusion is desired to be performed for obtaining the biologic width and ferrule in order to prevent inflammation of the gingiva or root fracture.[9],[10] However, the relationship between the root length over the alveolar bone and the occurrence of root fracture has not been investigated clearly.

Intraoral radiography has been used commonly for the examination of tooth and periodontium; however, the amount of remaining tooth structure can be detected only in the two-dimensional image. In contrast, the amount of remaining tooth structure can be observed from all directions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Recently, CBCT is used for the detection of root fracture, which provides more information about dental structure.[11]

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of root length over the alveolar bone to the occurrence of root fracture on endodontically treated teeth using CBCT.


  Methods Top


This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of our institution. We reviewed endodontically treated 176 upper incisors (35 upper right lateral incisors, 47 upper right central incisors, 41 upper left central incisors, and 53 upper left lateral incisors) (55 males and 121 females; age range: 28–86 years, mean age: 59.0 ± 11.2 years) using CBCT images in our university hospital from April 2018 to March 2019. Traumatized teeth, immature teeth, moderate or severe periodontal disease, and teeth without crown prosthesis were removed from the study patients. In 176 upper incisors, seven teeth were incurred root fracture (five vertical fractures and two horizontal fractures) (3 males and 4 females; age range: 48–86 years, mean age: 62.7 ± 12.0 years) and 169 were not incurred root fracture (52 males and 117 females; age range: 28–86 years, mean age: 58.9 ± 11.2 years).

CBCT imaging was performed with a CBCT unit (Fine Cube; Yoshida, Tokyo, Japan). The CBCT parameters were as follows: tube voltage, 90.00 kV; tube current, 4.00 mA; field of view, 81 × 81 mm; and rotation time, 16.8 s. The protocol was set at a thickness of 0.144 mm, resulting in axial, cross-sectional, and parasagittal multiplanar reformation (MPR) images and three-dimensional images.[12]

The root length over the alveolar bone (between the margins of the crown and the top of the alveolar bone) and under the alveolar bone (between the top of the alveolar bone and the root apex) was measured automatically by drawing a line on CBCT. The root length over and under the alveolar bone was measured at four points such as mesial, distal, labial, and palatal parts. The measurement of the mesial and distal root length over and under the alveolar bone was performed by a cross-sectional MPR image that passes between the middle of the labial and palatal margins of the crown and orthogonal to the middle of the mesial and distal margins of the crown [Figure 1]a. The measurement of the labial and palatal root length over and under the alveolar bone was performed by parasagittal MPR image that passes between the middle of the mesial and distal margins of the crown and orthogonal to the middle of the labial and palatal margins of the crown [Figure 1]b.
Figure 1: Measurement part. (a) Cross-sectional multiplanar reformation image of cone-beam computed tomography. Measurement of the mesial and distal root length was performed by cross-sectional multiplanar reformation image that passes between the middle of the labial and palatal margins of the crown (b) Parasagittal multiplanar reformation image of cone-beam computed tomography. Measurement of the labial and palatal root length was performed by parasagittal multiplanar reformation image that passes between the middle of the mesial and distal margins of the crown

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The minimum and average values among the labial, palatal, mesial, and distal root length over the alveolar bone of each tooth were calculated. The minimum and average values among the labial, palatal, mesial, and distal root length under the alveolar bone of each tooth were also calculated. In addition, the minimum and average values of the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone among the labial, palatal, mesial, and distal root length of each tooth were calculated.

The sex difference between patients with and without root fracture was analyzed by cross-tabulation. The age difference between patients with and without root fracture was analyzed by Mann–Whitney U-test. The differences of the minimum and average values of the root length over and under the alveolar bone between the tooth with and without root fracture were analyzed by Mann–Whitney U-test. The differences of the minimum and average values of the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone between the tooth with and without root fracture were also analyzed by Mann–Whitney U-test. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical analysis software SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Japan Inc., Tokyo, Japan), and differences of α < 0.05 were considered significant.


  Results Top


The result of Pearson's Chi-square test showed that there was no sex difference between patients with and without root fracture (χ2 = 0.457; P = 0.499). Age was not statistically significantly different between patients with and without root fracture (P = 0.620).

[Figure 2] shows CBCT images of the upper right central incisors with and without root fracture. The distal root length over the alveolar bone can be observed shorter on the tooth with root fracture [Figure 2]a in comparison with the tooth without root fracture [Figure 2]b.
Figure 2: Cone-beam computed tomography image of the upper right central incisor with and without root fracture. (a) Cross-sectional multiplanar reformation image (with root fracture). Fractured section of Figure 1a. Arrow indicates the part of root fracture (b) Cross-sectional multiplanar reformation image (without root fracture) (c) Parasagittal multiplanar reformation image (with root fracture). Fractured section of Figure 1b. Arrow indicates the part of root fracture (d) Parasagittal multiplanar reformation image (without root fracture)

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[Table 1] shows the results of the statistical analysis. The minimum and average values of root length over the alveolar bone were statistically significantly different between the tooth with and without root fracture (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively), and the root length over the alveolar bone on the tooth with root fracture was smaller than that without root fracture. The minimum and average values of root length under the alveolar bone were not different between the tooth with and without root fracture (P = 0.946 and P = 0.284, respectively). The minimum value of the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone was statistically significantly different between the tooth with and without root fracture (P < 0.001), and the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone of the tooth with root fracture was smaller than that without root fracture. The average value of the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone was not statistically significantly different between the tooth with and without root fracture (P = 0.147).
Table 1: Results of the statistical analysis

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  Discussion Top


Preventive dentistry has been developed in recent times, and tooth loss caused by root fracture is increasing. This study investigated the influence of root length over the alveolar bone to the occurrence of root fracture on endodontically treated teeth using CBCT.

This study subjected the upper incisors to investigate the influence of root length over the alveolar bone on fracture resistance. The occurrence of root fracture on endodontically treated teeth is larger than that on vital teeth,[13],[14] therefore, only the endodontically treated teeth were subjected in this study. Traumatized teeth were removed from the study patients because the trauma can occur on any teeth in spite of the amount of the remaining tooth structure. Immature teeth and moderate or severe periodontal disease was eliminated from the study patients in order to integrate the condition of the study patients. This study investigated the teeth with crown prosthesis after endodontic treatment. There were no statistically significantly differences in the sex and age between patients with and without root fracture in this study. Concerning the core materials, Zhou and Wang [15] mentioned that several studies compared root fracture between fiber posts and cast posts; however, the results were inconsistent or conflicting. Therefore, the core materials were not taken into consideration in the analysis of this study. Concerning the post length, Büttel et al.[16] and Cecchin et al.[17] reported that post length has no effect on fracture resistance. Therefore, the post length was not taken into consideration in the analysis of this study. The factors that could influence the occurrence of root fracture were excluded when possible.

The results of this study showed that the minimum and average values of root length over the alveolar bone were statistically significantly smaller on tooth with root fracture in comparison with that without root fracture. This result was supported by the report that mentioned the importance of the amount of remaining tooth structure to provide resistance of the tooth.[2] It was reported that when force is applied to endodontically treated teeth, the occurrence of root fracture increases.[18] The lateral force applied to the crown part is passed around the dentine at the alveolar bone and tip of the post.[18] When the root length over the alveolar bone is small, larger force could be applied to the alveolar bone and tip of the post, and then, the root fracture will occur. The minimum value of the root length over the alveolar bone was 0.63 ± 0.20 mm on tooth with root fracture and 1.44 ± 0.46 mm on tooth without root fracture. Within the limitations of this study, it was suggested that the root length over the alveolar bone should be ≥1.0 mm for the prevention of root fracture.

Although the minimum value of the root length ratio of over the alveolar bone to under the alveolar bone of the tooth with root fracture was smaller than that without root fracture, there were no differences in the minimum value of the root length under the alveolar bone between the tooth with and without root fracture. These results suggested that the root length under the alveolar bone was not influenced by the root fracture, and only the root length over the alveolar bone was influenced by the occurrence of root fracture.

The results of this study suggested that the root length over the alveolar bone should be maintained for the prevention of root fracture. The limitation of this study was that the number of tooth with root fracture was small. In future studies, we should examine the influence of root length over the alveolar bone on fracture resistance in a large number of patients with root fracture.


  Conclusions Top


This study investigated the influence of root length over the alveolar bone on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth using CBCT. The results suggested that root length over the alveolar bone is smaller at the tooth with root fracture in comparison with that without root fracture.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Axelsson P, Nyström B, Lindhe J. The long-term effect of a plaque control program on tooth mortality, caries and periodontal disease in adults. Results after 30 years of maintenance. J Clin Periodontol 2004;31:749-57.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ng CC, Dumbrigue HB, Al-Bayat MI, Griggs JA, Wakefield CW. Influence of remaining coronal tooth structure location on the fracture resistance of restored endodontically treated anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent 2006;95:290-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Lloyd PM, Palik JF. The philosophies of dowel diameter preparation: A literature review. J Prosthet Dent 1993;69:32-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Juloski J, Radovic I, Goracci C, Vulicevic ZR, Ferrari M. Ferrule effect: A literature review. J Endod 2012;38:11-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Gargiulo AW, Wentz FM, Orban B. Dimensions and relations of the dentogingival junction in humans. J Periodontol 1961;32:261-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Hikasa T, Matsuka Y, Mine A, Minakuchi H, Hara ES, Van Meerbeek B, et al. A 15-year clinical comparative study of the cumulative survival rate of cast metal core and resin core restorations luted with adhesive resin cement. Int J Prosthodont 2010;23:397-405.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Mancebo JC, Jiménez-Castellanos E, Cañadas D. Effect of tooth type and ferrule on the survival of pulpless teeth restored with fiber posts: A 3-year clinical study. Am J Dent 2010;23:351-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Gegauff AG. Effect of crown lengthening and ferrule placement on static load failure of cemented cast post-cores and crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2000;84:169-79.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Oh SL. Biologic width and crown lengthening: Case reports and review. Gen Dent 2010;58:e200-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Zenóbio EG, Moreira RC, Soares RV, Feres M, Chambrone L, Shibli JA. A mixed-model study assessing orthodontic tooth extrusion for the reestablishment of biologic width. A systematic review and exploratory randomized trial. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2015;35:19-27.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Chavda R, Mannocci F, Andiappan M, Patel S. Comparing the in vivo diagnostic accuracy of digital periapical radiography with cone-beam computed tomography for the detection of vertical root fracture. J Endod 2014;40:1524-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Sue M, Oda T, Sasaki Y, Ogura I. Age-related changes in the pulp chamber of maxillary and mandibular molars on cone-beam computed tomography images. Oral Radiol 2018;34:219-23.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Carter JM, Sorensen SE, Johnson RR, Teitelbaum RL, Levine MS. Punch shear testing of extracted vital and endodontically treated teeth. J Biomech 1983;16:841-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Sokol DJ. Effective use of current core and post concepts. J Prosthet Dent 1984;52:231-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Zhou L, Wang Q. Comparison of fracture resistance between cast posts and fiber posts: A meta-analysis of literature. J Endod 2013;39:11-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Büttel L, Krastl G, Lorch H, Naumann M, Zitzmann NU, Weiger R. Influence of post fit and post length on fracture resistance. Int Endod J 2009;42:47-53.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Cecchin D, Farina AP, Guerreiro CA, Carlini-Júnior B. Fracture resistance of roots prosthetically restored with intra-radicular posts of different lengths. J Oral Rehabil 2010;37:116-22.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Takahashi H. Root fracture mechanism of foundation restoration. J Jpn Prosthodont Soc 2001;45:669-78.  Back to cited text no. 18
    


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